Loop and thiazide diuretics can cause metabolic alkalosis due to increased excretion of chloride in proportion to bicarbonate.
Which diuretic causes metabolic acidosis?
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors produce less hypokalemia and volume depletion but commonly induce metabolic acidosis that is often symptomatic. The potassium-sparing agents also limit proton excretion, and spironolactone may produce metabolic acidosis.
What medications cause metabolic alkalosis?
- Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors.
- Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
- Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors.
- Potassium Supplements.
- Fluid Replacements.
- Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents.
Can furosemide cause metabolic alkalosis?
Chloruretic agents such as chlorothiazide, furosemide, and their congeners all directly produce the loss of chloride, sodium, and fluid in the urine (12). These losses, in turn, promote metabolic alkalosis by several possible mechanisms.
What is the common cause of metabolic alkalosis?
Key Points about Metabolic Alkalosis
The most common causes are volume depletion (particularly when involving loss of gastric acid and chloride (Cl) due to recurrent vomiting or nasogastric suction) and diuretic use. Metabolic alkalosis involving loss or excess secretion of Cl is termed chloride-responsive.
Why do Diuretics cause metabolic acidosis?
The generation of a metabolic alkalosis with diuretic therapy is primarily due to contraction of the extracellular fluid space caused by urinary losses of a relatively HCO3 -free fluid.
How do you fix metabolic acidosis?
Treatment for metabolic acidosis works in three main ways: excreting or getting rid of excess acids. buffering acids with a base to balance blood acidity. preventing the body from making too many acids.
- diabetes medications.
- electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium)
What are the symptoms of metabolic alkalosis?
Symptoms of alkalosis can include any of the following:
- Confusion (can progress to stupor or coma)
- Hand tremor.
- Muscle twitching.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Numbness or tingling in the face, hands, or feet.
- Prolonged muscle spasms (tetany)
What is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis?
Lactic acidosis is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis in hospitalized patients. Lactate accumulation results from a combination of excess formation and decreased metabolism of lactate. Excess lactate production occurs during states of anaerobic metabolism.
What is the difference between metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis?
Acidosis refers to an excess of acid in the blood that causes the pH to fall below 7.35, and alkalosis refers to an excess of base in the blood that causes the pH to rise above 7.45.
How do you reverse metabolic alkalosis?
Treatment of Alkalosis
Doctors rarely simply give acid, such as hydrochloric acid, to reverse the alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis is usually treated by replacing water and electrolytes (sodium and potassium) while treating the cause. Rarely, when metabolic alkalosis is very severe, dilute acid is given intravenously.
What are the lab values for metabolic alkalosis?
Metabolic alkalosis: > 26 mEq/L[Standard Bicarbonate: Calculated value. Similar to the base excess. It is defined as the calculated bicarbonate concentration of the sample corrected to a PCO2 of 5.3kPa (40mmHg).
Why does furosemide causes metabolic alkalosis?
Thus, metabolic alkalosis in chronic furosemide therapy is associated with stimulation of all three collecting tubule ATPases. The high aldosterone level likely stimulates the H-ATPase in both CCT and MCT; and in the former it also stimulates Na-K-ATPase activity.
How do you fix ventilator metabolic alkalosis?
Metabolic alkalosis is corrected with the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone or with other potassium-sparing diuretics (eg, amiloride, triamterene). If the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism is an adrenal adenoma or carcinoma, surgical removal of the tumor should correct the alkalosis.
What are the complications of metabolic alkalosis?
Complications. Alkalosis may lead to tetany, seizures, and decreased mental status. Metabolic alkalosis also decreases coronary blood flow and predisposes persons to refractory arrhythmias.
How do kidneys respond to metabolic alkalosis?
The kidneys excrete excess HCO3 − into urine during a metabolic alkalosis. Hypokalemia and kaliuresis are common complications of metabolic alkalosis. Patients with metabolic alkalosis are predisposed to cardiac arrhythmias.