In short, “metabolism of drugs” is a form of biotransformation which happens to drugs in a body, whereas “biotransformation” is a more general term which applies equally well to the actions of a disembodied enzyme digesting an oil slick.
What does the term biotransformation mean?
: the transformation of chemical compounds within a living system.
How does biotransformation affect the metabolism of chemicals?
The major purpose of biotransformation is to chemically modify (metabolize) poorly excretable lipophilic compounds to more hydrophilic chemicals that are readily excreted in urine and/or bile. Without metabolism, lipophilic xenobiotics accumulate in biota, increasing the potential for toxicity.
What are the types of biotransformation?
Biotransformation is of two types: Enzymatic and Non-enzymatic. Enzymatic are further divided into Microsomal and Non-microsomal. Enzymatic Elimination is the biotransformation occurring due to various enzymes present in the body.
What happens biotransformation?
Biotransformation, sometimes referred to as metabolism, is the structural modification of a chemical by enzymes in the body. Chemicals are biotransformed in several organs, including the liver, kidneys, lungs, skin, intestines, and placenta, with the liver being the most important.
What are the two phases of biotransformation?
Phase I: Yields a polar, water-soluble, metabolite that is often still active. Many of the products in this phase can also become substrates for phase II. Phase II: Yields a large polar metabolite by adding endogenous hydrophilic groups to form water-soluble inactive compounds that can be excreted by the body.
What is metabolism process?
Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the body’s cells that change food into energy. … Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism. Thousands of metabolic reactions happen at the same time — all regulated by the body — to keep our cells healthy and working.
Why does first pass metabolism occur?
The first-pass metabolism or the first-pass effect or presystemic metabolism is the phenomenon which occurs whenever the drug is administered orally, enters the liver, and suffers extensive biotransformation to such an extent that the bioavailability is drastically reduced, thus showing subtherapeutic action (Chordiya …
What causes biotransformation?
Biotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs in the body. It is also needed to render non-polar compounds polar so that they are not reabsorbed in renal tubules and are excreted.
What is the difference between Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolism?
Phase I reactions of drug metabolism involve oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of the parent drug, resulting in its conversion to a more polar molecule. Phase II reactions involve conjugation by coupling the drug or its metabolites to another molecule, such as glucuronidation, acylation, sulfate, or glicine.
What is a biotransformation enzyme?
Biotransformation or biocatalysis entails the use of the catalytic part of the biological systems such as plant cells, animal cells or microbial cells or purified enzymes for the biosynthesis of novel compounds.
What is a Phase 1 reaction?
Phase 1 metabolism involves chemical reactions such as oxidation (most common), reduction and hydrolysis. There are three possible results of phase 1 metabolism. The drug becomes completely inactive. … One or more of the metabolites are pharmacologically active, but less so than the original drug.
Why is biotransformation necessary?
To defense the body against xenobiotic substances, an array of biotransformation reactions (or metabolic reactions) is undergone. Due to the biotransformation, the molecular structure of a drug is commonly changed to be more hydrophilic and the substances can be readily eliminated from the body .
What affects drug metabolism?
Individual drug metabolism rates are influenced by genetic factors, coexisting disorders (particularly chronic liver disorders and advanced heart failure), and drug interactions (especially those involving induction or inhibition of metabolism).
What is Phase II reaction?
Phase II reactions include glucuronidation, sulfation, acetylation, methylation, conjugation with glutathione, and conjugation with amino acids (such as glycine, taurine, and glutamic acid). – It is important to understand that these Phase I and II. reactions may occur simultaneously or sequentially.
What is cytochrome P450?
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are a superfamily of enzymes containing heme as a cofactor that functions as monooxygenases. In mammals, these proteins oxidize steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics, and are important for the clearance of various compounds, as well as for hormone synthesis and breakdown.