Drug metabolism is the chemical alteration of a drug by the body. (See also Introduction to Administration and Kinetics of Drugs.) Some drugs are chemically altered by the body (metabolized).
How does metabolism affect drugs?
Some drugs, called prodrugs, are administered in an inactive form, which is metabolized into an active form. The resulting active metabolites produce the desired therapeutic effects. Metabolites may be metabolized further instead of being excreted from the body. The subsequent metabolites are then excreted.
Why is drug metabolism important?
The majority of metabolic processes that involve drugs occur in the liver, as the enzymes that facilitate the reactions are concentrated there. The purpose of metabolism in the body is usually to change the chemical structure of the substance, to increase the ease with which it can be excreted from the body.
What is drug metabolism explain?
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. … The study of drug metabolism is called pharmacokinetics. The metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs is an important aspect of pharmacology and medicine.
What is drug metabolism in medicinal chemistry?
Drug metabolism is the chemical alteration of a drug via a biological system to aid its elimination by increasing its hydrophilicity. Drug metabolism occurs in two phases: Phase 1 includes oxidative reactions such as those undertaken by the cytochrome P450s, but also includes reduction and hydrolysis.
What is metabolism process?
Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the body’s cells that change food into energy. … Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism. Thousands of metabolic reactions happen at the same time — all regulated by the body — to keep our cells healthy and working.
What causes slow drug metabolism?
Underlying health conditions can also influence your drug metabolic rate. Some conditions at greater risk of this are chronic liver disorders, kidney dysfunction, or advanced heart failure.
What are the phases of drug metabolism?
Drug metabolism reactions comprise of two phases: Phase I (functionalization) reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis; and Phase II (conjugation) reactions such as glucuronidation, sulphate conjugation. Oxidation reactions are the most common and vital.
What are the sites of drug metabolism?
Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism. Once in the liver, enzymes convert prodrugs to active metabolites or convert active drugs to inactive forms.
What is the difference between biotransformation and metabolism?
In short, “metabolism of drugs” is a form of biotransformation which happens to drugs in a body, whereas “biotransformation” is a more general term which applies equally well to the actions of a disembodied enzyme digesting an oil slick.
What are the importance and consequences of drug metabolism?
The metabolism of a drug can have important consequences on its therapeutic effect or its toxicity. For this reason, early assessments of metabolic pathways in man help to foresee interindividual variation in drug response and elimination due to metabolism.
What are the four stages of drug metabolization?
Drugs undergo four stages within the body: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. After a drug is administered, it is absorbed into the bloodstream.