Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as: Breathing. Circulating blood. Controlling body temperature. Contracting muscles.
How does metabolism work with medication?
Drugs can be metabolized by oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, hydration, conjugation, condensation, or isomerization; whatever the process, the goal is to make the drug easier to excrete. The enzymes involved in metabolism are present in many tissues but generally are more concentrated in the liver.
What is metabolism easy definition?
Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the body’s cells that change food into energy. Our bodies need this energy to do everything from moving to thinking to growing.
What is drug metabolism in medicinal chemistry?
Drug metabolism is the chemical alteration of a drug via a biological system to aid its elimination by increasing its hydrophilicity. Drug metabolism occurs in two phases: Phase 1 includes oxidative reactions such as those undertaken by the cytochrome P450s, but also includes reduction and hydrolysis.
What causes slow drug metabolism?
Underlying health conditions can also influence your drug metabolic rate. Some conditions at greater risk of this are chronic liver disorders, kidney dysfunction, or advanced heart failure.
What organ is responsible for drug metabolism?
Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism. Once in the liver, enzymes convert prodrugs to active metabolites or convert active drugs to inactive forms.
What is metabolism with example?
Metabolic reactions may be categorized as catabolic – the breaking down of compounds (for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate by cellular respiration); or anabolic – the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids).
What is metabolism and give an example?
Metabolism refers to all of the chemical reactions that take place within an organism by which complex molecules are broken down to produce energy and by which energy is used to build up complex molecules. An example of a metabolic reaction is the one that takes place when a person eats a spoonful of sugar.
Is it good to have a high metabolism?
However, the word metabolism is often used interchangeably with metabolic rate, or the number of calories you burn. The higher it is, the more calories you burn and the easier it is to lose weight and keep it off. Having a high metabolism can also give you energy and make you feel better.
What is drug metabolism and its importance?
Drug metabolism is the term used to describe the biotransformation of pharmaceutical substances in the body so that they can be eliminated more easily. The majority of metabolic processes that involve drugs occur in the liver, as the enzymes that facilitate the reactions are concentrated there.
What are the four stages of drug metabolization?
Drugs undergo four stages within the body: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. After a drug is administered, it is absorbed into the bloodstream.
What is the main purpose of drug metabolism?
The primary objective of drug metabolism is to facilitate a drug’s excretion by increasing its water solubility (hydrophilicity).
What are the factors that affect drug metabolism?
Many factors affect the rate and pathway of metabolism of drugs, and the major influences can be sub-divided into internal (physiological and pathological) and external (exogenous) factors as indicated below: Internal: species, genetic (strain), sex, age, hormones, pregnancy, disease. External: diet, environment.
What are the two phases of drug metabolism?
Drug metabolism reactions comprise of two phases: Phase I (functionalization) reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis; and Phase II (conjugation) reactions such as glucuronidation, sulphate conjugation.
What are the consequences of drug metabolism?
In general, the metabolism of a drug decreases its therapeutic effect. The majority of drugs are metabolized to increase their water solubility to allow elimination in urine or bile. However some drugs are metabolized into active compounds first before subsequent metabolism to inactive compounds and be excreted.